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1- Isfahan Endocrine and Metabolism Research Center, Pediatrics Department, Child Growth and Development Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-communicable Disease, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
2- Pediatrics Department, Child Growth and Development Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-communicable Disease, Emam Hossein Children’s Hospital, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran , payam.sameii@gmail.com
3- Pediatrics Department, Child Growth and Development Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-communicable Disease, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
4- Pediatrics Department, Child Growth and Development Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-communicable Disease, Emam Hossein Children’s Hospital, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
5- Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Boston, Massachusetts, The United States
Abstract:   (197 Views)
Context: Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is the most common endocrine disorder and causes of preventable mental retardation in children. Objectives: We aimed to systematically review the reported congenital hypothyroidism (CH) related risk factors. Data Sources: In this systematic review, all types of human studies studying the risk factors related to the occurrence or high rate of CH were included.An electronic search was conducted in international national electronic databases. The following keywords were used ;( “Congenital Hypothyroidism” [Mesh] AND “risk factor” [Mesh]).Study Selection: In this review, 373 papers (PubMed: 199; Scopus: 36; ISI: 53, SID: 55, Ovid: 11; Science Direct: 19) were identified through electronic database search.98 articles assessed for eligibility, from which 60 qualified articles were selected for final evaluation. Most of the studies have cross sectional, case control and prospective design, respectively. Data Extraction: The current review was conducted and reported in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement. Results: Reported risk factors for transient CH were as follows; iodine deficiency and excess, prematurity, advances maternal age, male gender, retinopathy of prematurity, twin pregnancy, maternal autoimmune thyroid disease, intrauterine growth retardation and cesarean delivery. Reported risk factors for permanent CH with dysgenesis of thyroid gland were as follows; female gender, familial history of CH, birth in geographical areas with high rate of the disease, advanced maternal age, ethnicity (Caucasians) but not seasonality. Reported risk factors for permanent CH with dyshormonogenesis were familial history of CH and origin of both parents from the high risk geographical region. Conclusions: Using the data we could plan more etiologic studies to investigate the pathogenesis of the disorder, design interventional studies for the known modifiable risk factors to reduce the rate of CH in our region. In addition for risk factors with limited evidences more studies should be performed.

 
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Type of Study: Systematic Review | Subject: Endocrinology
Received: 2018/07/21 | Accepted: 2019/02/6

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