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1- Institute of Child Health, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan , beorimadegun@yahoo.com
2- Department of Paediatrics, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
3- Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
Abstract:   (103 Views)
Context: Biological sex is thought to influence morbidity and mortality patterns in children living in sub-Saharan Africa due to acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRIs), but little is known about the effect of sex on ALRI.
Objective: We assessed the quality and strength of evidence of association in African children between sex and incidence, aetiologies and outcomes of ALRI.
Data Sources, Study Selection, and Data Extraction: We systematically searched electronic databases for publications from 1971 to 2016: PubMed, African Journals Online, and Google scholar for ALRI literature in the African children's population. We used (pneumonia OR bronchiolitis OR “community-acquired pneumonia” OR CAP OR “hospital-acquired pneumonia” OR “nosocomial pneumonia” OR “ventilator-acquired pneumonia” OR “lung abscess” OR “pleural effusion” OR “empyema thoracis”), AND (sex OR gender) AND (Africa OR Sub-Saharan) as search terms. We included published peer-reviewed journal articles reporting on incidence, aetiology and/or case fatality. We summarized the findings using narrative and meta-analysis methods.
Results: We included 14 studies with sex-related data, the median (IQR) number of pneumonia cases reported was 148 (87-770) and 114 (56-599) for male and female patients, respectively. Only two studies reported a sex-specific incidence. The odds of sex were in favour of male sex and the chances of identification of Respiratory Syncytia Virus (RSV) were significantly lower in males than in females (OR=0.60; 95% CI: 0.42, 0.86).  Estimates from 9 studies showed that the death rate for males was significantly higher than for females (OR=1.26; 95% CI=1.20–1.33).
Conclusion: Sex-disaggregated data on incidence, aetiology and case fatality of pneumonia are scarcely reported in studies published in Africa. However, males appear to die more often than females, and females are more likely to have RSV infection.
Full-Text [PDF 1139 kb]   (21 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Meta-analysis Review | Subject: Pediatric Polmonology
Received: 2019/10/28 | Accepted: 2019/11/24

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